ENGLISH XII

Two-Long-Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees

- Moti Nissani

INTERPRATION

The essay “Two long term problem too many people Too few trees” has written by Moti Nissani. In this essay the author brings the twin problems like overpopulation and deforestation. In his essay he lists the concern of scientist as well as living noble prize winner took prioritized these problems. In the essay he suggest some measures to control rapid pop growth as well as deforestation. He shows his eco consciousness through his essay.

The first problem which Moti Nisssani talks is the problem of over population. The nature and human beings are in collision course due to the imbalance of birth rate and death rate. In comparison to the population of 1650 our population is 11th time more Moti Nassani also brings the references that every day we add 10000 people in our number and in every year the world’s population grows by more than 80 million people. The author also brings the reverences of 1951 census of Nepal. During that time one Nepali women in average use to beget 5 children. All these data helps us to analyse the speed of population growth. To sustain the growth population we have to chop down the trees. To provide food as well as shelter for increase population we have to invade the triotory of trees. As a result there’s imbalance nature to fulfill the needs of increase population we have to establish more industries as well as we have to make more vechiles. Due to the excessive use of vehicles the environment is polluted, air, water is polluted. Due to the pollution in air in America almost sixty thousand people die each year due to respiratory disease. The same problem gas been experienced in the crowded  city like Kathmandu, Mexico, Shanghai etc. Population size and rates of growth are key elements in environmental change .due to the use of modern medicine people of 21st century live longer than their fore father lived. The author suggest some measures to control rapid population growth.

Moti Nissani says that the history and common sense tell us that we can control population growth. The country’s like china, Thailand and Egypt got success to decrease their rate of population growth. The factors like modernization growth literacy rate media campaigns readily available family planning measures and contraceptives, equal economic opportunities for all citizens, equal access in education for all citizens and legal opportunities for women are responsible to control rapid population growth. The author suggest us to utilize all the aforementioned results measures to control our growth rate of population. Rapid population growth is one of the burning problems of developing countries. Illiteracy, poverty, lack of participatory democracy, lack of awareness programmes as well as traditional thinking of people is responsible for rapid population growth. The author equally talks about next burning problem i.e. deforestation.

There is one to one corresponding between over population. Over population waves the ground for deforestation. As the size of our planet is stable and the size of population is always in flux. It Creates problem. The first attack of increase of population becomes the forest. When we limitate the number of trees, we have to face different problem. The lack of trees always leaves us irreversible loss like greenhouse effect landslide, soil erosion, siltration of rivers, drwghts and weather extremes, in context of Nepal the deforestation calls for landslide as well as soil erosion. In hilly area which results into siltration of river in plain area of Nepal. Due to the decastating episode like soil erosion and landslide, the hilly area of Nepal turns in to desert which is called desertification the same fate has to be experienced by the people of plane area. The poverty of the people of developing country is responsible for deforestation equally the internet and demands of  western’s  play significant for deforestation. Due to the pollution in water the animal like salamander and fisheries are collapsing. Many other animals as well as birds are also extinct from the earth, because of deforestation.

Moti Nissani, highlights some meausres to control the process of deforestation as developed under developed and developing countries are responsible for the present position of biosphere all of them should contribute to save the forest. At first all of the countries launch the programme to lesser down the pressure of human beings upon the forest. All the countries must try their best to create balance between the rate of birth and death. The government of under developed countries most invest money  for effective family planning programme as well education for them. The countries should practice the participatory democracy to share the equal responsibility of their citizen upon the forest. As a result people will encourage to save their surrounding to rest.The government should impose tax for the wood product. All of the governmentof the world most encourage their people to plant trees on the abandoned area. The process of reforestation will help to save the biodiversity. In the contest of Nepal the author suggest to use smoke less stove to decrease the pressure of people upon the forest. Although we human beings assume that we are people of high intellect and wisdom till the time we fail to perform our wisdom and courage to save the biodiversity.

Problems caused by overpopulation:

  • Land water and air pollution
  • Scarcity of food
  • Danger of violence
  • Declination of beautiful places
  • Environmental declination
  • Deforestation
  • Lack of sperm
  • Danger of several diseases
  • Lack of hearing
  • Depletion of nonrenewable resources
  • Poor eye sight because of modernization

 

Solutions:

  • Family planning
  • Education for balanced diet
  • Awareness programmers
  • Women rights
  • Education to women
  • Discussion programmers
  • Concerning pollution and environmental problems

Causes of deforestation:

  • Over population
  • Urbanization
  • Poverty
  • Industrialization
  • Lack of awareness

 

Problems caused by deforestation:

  • Declination of number of wild animals, soil erosion, landslide, flooding, saltation of river, acid rain, desertification, depletion of ozone layer and threat of skin cancer.

Solutions:

  • Reforestation, control of population, use smokeless stove gas, dung stoves, electricity, discourage in wooden products and increment in tax in wooden materials.

What leads Nissani to the belief that the world is facing an overpopulation crisis?

Many factors are responsible for the growing world population. Illiteracy and Industrial revolution are included in them. Ten thousand babies are born every hour in the world. More land is cultivated to feed them. More and more trees are cut down. The growing population has polluted the land, water and the atmosphere. Pollution has claimed at least 60000 American lives every year.

Fertile land is changing into deserts. We continue to deplete the natural resources of the earth. It will cause serious damage to the environment. Wild life is fast changing. Harmful chemicals from factory gases damage trees, crops and buildings. Ozone layer is depleting. In addition to these changes, soil erosion, drought and weather extremes are the chain reactions of the growing population. This leads Nissani to the belief that the world is facing an over-population crisis.

  1. Is there anything you can do to help save Nepal’s remaining forests?

Yes, I can do a lot to help save Nepal’s remaining forests. First of all, I shall form a body of young volunteers. We shall together move from door to door and contact people. We shall make them aware of this national problem. We shall raise our slogans in the streets. We shall daub (paint as an advertisement) our slogans on the walls. Our slogans will be –Check population! Stop deforestation! Plant new trees! We shall appeal to the public to plant as many trees as they can. In schools, colleges, offices, mills and factories we shall convey our slogans. I strongly believe that the people will respond. In this way I shall help save Nepal’s remaining trees. There will be new awakening in the people.

  1. Write a paragraph on “The population of the world”.

The exploding world population is a matter of great concern.  Population is increasing but production is not increasing at the same rate. The growing population has brought about many social evils. Unemployment makes the situation worse still. Growing crime is another evil of population. Poverty, ignorance, disease and violence are the by-product of the population. Mass-education through out the world can solve this problem. If connected problems are solved, growth of population will stop. Every country should take more effective measures. Illiterate people should be persuaded to use scientific methods of birth control.

  1. How many children do you plan to have? Do you plan to follow the previous generation’s example of having five children? Why or why not?

I just want to have only one child because it is a new trend of modern people. Child is a boon for a couple. More than one child becomes a great problem for modern men because both the husband and wife work in an office. So, there is no time for the children in their hectic life.

So, I don’t follow the tradition of having five children instead I prefer only one child whether it is a daughter or a son.

Describe the problems of overpopulation and deforestatioin Moti Nissani has dealt with.

  1. Explain the links between over population and deforestation.

There are many problems caused by overpopulation and deforestations.  The followings are the major ones discussed or dealt by Moti Nissani.

  1. Food Shortage

The more people there are, the greater amount of food is needed. If there is not enough food to feed people in a specific place, then there is food shortage in that place. When people do not get enough food, their health is affected. People become undernourished when they do not have enough food to eat. Undernourished children are more likely to get sick.

  1. Water Shortage

When population increases, the demand for water also increases. Farmers need more water to irrigate their fields so that they can produce more crops. Factories need more water to use in manufacturing more goods. More households need more water for drinking, cooking, washing clothes, personal hygiene and many other activities.

Water shortage is evident when people have to walk a long way to get water, or when they have to queue up to get it. Many people do not have access to potable water. They get their water from springs, rivers, wells and rain. The quality of water that people get may be poor. Water shortage in a community can bring about problems related to sanitation and health.

  1. Limited Space

The population of a place increases in just a short time. However, the space in a place remains the same. When the houses in a neighborhood are overcrowded, it shows that the population in the area is too big. This is a common sight in a city. Many poor people build shanties along creeks, in dumpsites or along railroads. More than one family may share a shanty (5fk|f]). Overpopulation in a community can limit space for housing. That leads them to cut trees and built more homes. They need food and that comes by cutting the trees and creating a field for crops.

  1. Health Problems

Food shortage, overcrowding, poor water supply and environmental pollution affect the health of the people, particularly the children. Poor environmental sanitation is a major cause of diseases such as diarrhea, typhoid and cholera. Dirty insects such as flies and cockroaches contaminate food with disease-causing germs. Many children who play barefoot in dirty areas and do not wash their hands before eating become infected with worms.

Some respiratory diseases such as tuberculosos, pneumonia and bronchitis are worsened by polluted air. Communicable diseases can easily be transferred from one person to another in an overpopulated area.

  1. Environmental Degredation

More people generate more waste. Solid wastes such as plastics, tin cans and bottles, when not properly disposed of, become eyesores (cf+vf cufl8 g/fd|f] b]lvg] rLh ) in a place. Garbage and sewage, if left untreated, can pollute the water supply.

More people need more things to use so more factories are built, more transportation facilities are made and more products are manufactured. This means more fuels are burned. The more fuels are burned, the more polluted the air becomes.

What are the Causes of Deforestatin?

There are many causes of contemporary deforestation, including corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth  and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization. Globalization is often viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in which the impacts of globalization (new flows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery.

The growing demand of agricultural products compel people to cut trees and create plantation field. They also cut them to export the raw materials to the multinational companies. People wish to lead a luxurious life, they need genuine wood products which ultimately leads to deforestation. In the hilly region people cut trees to feed catles and they don’t plant trees. So, they have to face the problem of land slide and famine. There are very few people who think about afforestation.

What are the causes, consequences and cures of overpopulation and deforestation?

The rate of mortality has decreased due to many reasons. People get nutritious food, they have regular health check up facility, they get varieties of injection against many contagious diseases. So, people live longer than before but the rate of birth is increasing day by day. So, the world is crowded with people.

Overpopulation brings unexpected problems like famine, food crisis, pollution, environment degradation, deforestation and so on. So, we need to control over population. The best cure of over population is not to born many children. Polygamy should be stopped and measures of birth control should be used properly.

Overpopulation is the main cause of deforestation. Overpopulation gives rise to crimes of cutting trees and its illegal business. People’s demand of luxurious goods also makes peple cut more trees. Cutting trees puts us in great problem of environment. It stops rain and causes drought. Animal life is severely affected by deforestation.

Deforestation can be controlled by close observation by the government. More social awareness is also needed. Every people should be conscious against the hazardous effects of the deforestation. We need to plant trees like ‘Sewailal Chaudhary’, who gave his life planting trees. He is the epitome of a true tree lover  and a leader of afforestation in Nepal.

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