Hotel Management

Stocks and Types

Stock can be defined as unseasoned, thickened, nutritious liquid containing some of the soluble nutrients and flavors of food which are obtained from the prolonged and the gentle simmering of the bones, aromatic vegetables, flavoring herbs and water. The general time requirement for the preparation of stock is normally 6-8 Hours with the exception of fish stock which only required 20-30 Minutes preparation time. This liquids act as a foundation of various foods such as sauces, soup, gravy etc.

It is made from the fresh and matured bones of animal with the addition of various aromatic vegetables and herbs.

Stocks are used in the preparation as the foundation of various dished such as soups, sauce, gravies, curries, stews, braising items.

Therefore, following care should be taken in its preparation

  • All fat bloodlines and marrow should be removed from bone before preparing.
  • Scums should be removed from time to time during simmering.
  • Stock should only be simmered and not boiled.
  • Mirepoix and Bouquet Garni must be fresh.
  • Salt should never be added to stock.
  • For storing, the stock should be strained and the liquid should be cooled.
  • Stock should be stored in a refrigerator or cold room.

Ingredients for stock

  1. Bones
  2. Meat
  3. Mirepoix
  4. Seasoning and spice
  5. Herbs and spices
  6. Bouquet

White stock

White stock made from the combination of fresh bone, water, mirepoix and bouquet garni. The bones should not be fried or roasted just put them into the pan/pot along with the fresh water, aromatic vegetable and herbs simultaneously. While it comes to the boiling points. Let it boil five minutes, reduce the heat below the points, and boil in simmering heat for 2-4 hours or as per the nature of bone. Remove the scum time to time to make the stock clear white.

General Methods for all white stocks


  • Chop the bones and place in a thick bottomed stock pot.
  • Add cold water and bring to boil.
  • If the scum is dirty, then blanch and wash off the bones, re-cover with cold water and re-boil.
  • Skim occasionally and simmer gently for around half an hour.
  • Now add the mirepoix and bouquet garni.
  • Simmer for 2-4 hours, skim and strain.

A good white stock has rich, full flavour, good body, clarity and little no colour.  Chicken stock may have a light yellow colour.

Procedure for preparing white stock (PREPARING WHITE STOCK)


  1. Cut the bones into 3 to 4 inches (4 to 8 cm) pieces.
    1. Rinse the bone is cold water (if desired, chicken, veal or beef bones may be blanched)
  2. Place bones in stockpot or steam-jacketed kettle and add cold water to cover.
  1. Bring water to a boil, and then reduce to a simmer.
  2. Skim the scum that comes to the surface.
  3. Add the chopped mirepoix and the herbs and spices.
  4. Do not let the stock to boil. Keep it as a long simmer.
  5. Skim the surface as often necessary during cooking.
  6. Keep the water level above the bones. Add more water if the stock reduces below level.
  7. Simmer for recommended length time.
  8. Skim the surface and strain off the stock through a china cap lined with several layer of cheesecloth.
  9. Cool the stock as quickly as possible.
  10. When cool, refrigerate the stock in covered containers.
  11. Stock will keep 2 to 3 days if properly refrigerated.

Brown Stock

Brown stock is made from the combination of fresh bone, water, mirepoix and bouquet garni. The bone and mirepoix should be fried or roasted till brown then they are simmered starting with cold and fresh water and herbs added simultaneously. While it comes to the boiling points, let it boil five minutes and reduce the heat below the points and cook at simmering heat for 2-4 hours or as per the nature of bone. The color should be clear brown. Remove the scum time to time to make the stock clear brown.

Methods of Brown stock.

  • Chop the bones and brown well on all sides, either by frying or by roasting.
  • Place the browned bones in a thick bottomed stockpot.
  • Add cold water, bring to boil and skim occasionally to remove the scum.
  • Fry the mirepoix till brown and add to the bones.
  • Add the bouquet garni to the bones.
  • Simmer gently for stipulated time as per the bone used, skim occasionally, strain and store.



The difference between brown stocks and white stocks is that the bones and mirepoix are browned for the brown stocks.  Two methods of making brown stocks:

Procedure I

  1. Cut the bones into 3 to 4 inches piece, as for white stock. Veal and/beef are used for brown stock.
  2. Do not wash or blanch the bones. The moisture would hinder browning.
  3. Place the bones in a roasting pan in one layer and brown in a hot oven at 375°F (190°C) or higher.
  4. The bones must be well browned to color the stock sufficiently. This takes over an hour. 
  5. When the bones are well browned, removed them from the pan and place in stockpot. Cover with cold water and bring to simmer.
  6. Drain the reserve the fat from the roasting pan. Deglaze the pan by adding water and stirring over heat until all the brown drippings are dissolved or loosened.  Add to stockpot.
  7. While the stock is getting started, place the mirepoix in roasting pan with some of the reserved fat and brown the vegetables as well in the oven.
  8. When the water in the stockpot comes to a simmer, skim and continue as for the white stock.

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