A network topology is the physical arrangement of computers, cables and other components on a network. The type of topology you use affect the speed and performance of the computer network. The common used physical network topologies are; Bus Topology, Ring Topology, Star Topology, Mesh Topology, Tree Topology, Hybrid Topology
a). Bus Topology:
In a bus topology, all of the computers in a network are attached to a continuous cable or segment, that connects them in a linear format. It uses a common cable or backbone to connect all the nodes is called as Bus. In this topology, a packet or data is transmitted to all network adapter on that segment.
• Bus topology is simple, reliable (in very small network), easy to use and easy to understand.
• It is less expensive.
• It is easy to add a new node in the network.
• Heavy network traffic can slow a bus considerably.
• It is difficult to troubleshoot.
• If problems occurs on the backbone, the entire network will go down.
b). Star Topology:
In a star topology, all cables runs from the computer to a central location, where they are all connected by a device called a hub or switch. Each nodes on a star topology must be located relatively close to the hub.
• It is easy to set up and configure.
• It is easy to modify and add new computers to a start topology without disturbing the rest of the network.
• Single computer failure does not necessarily bring down the whole start network.
• It is easy to detect the errors in star topology
• It the central device fails, the whole network stops.
• It costs more to cable a start topology because all network cable must be pulled to central point (hub).
c). Ring Topology:
In a ring topology, each computer is connected to the next computer with the last one connected to the first. The ring topology provides equal access for all computers on the network. The information on a ring network travels in one direction either clockwise or anti clockwise direction.
• Ring topology is easy to setup and reconfigure.
• Each computer is given equal opportunity to access the network resources.
• Single cable connects between the nodes.
• Failure of one computer on the ring can affect the entire network.
• Adding or removing computers disturbs the networks.
• It is difficult to troubleshoot in a ring topology.
d). Mesh Topology:
In a mesh topology, each node is linked to other through intermediate nodes with redundant paths. All nodes are connected directly to one another, which helps fast communication between nodes.
• The mesh topology is fault tolerance.
• It is easy to troubleshoot.
• Difficult to installation and reconfigure
• It is costlier.