Computer Science XI

Summary

  • A computer is an electronic machine, capable of performing basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, etc.
  • Abacus is the first known calculating machine used for counting.
  • The Rotating Wheel Calculator was developed by Blaise Pascal, which is a predecessor to today’s electronic calculator.
  • Charles Babbage is called as the father of today’s computer.
  • The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory.
  • The second generation of computers witnessed the vacuum tubes being replaced by transistors.
  • The third generation computer used the integrated circuits.
  • The microprocessor brought forth the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
  • Data is a collection of facts from which information may be derived.
  • Information is a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn.
  • Algorithm is defined as a step-by-step procedure or formula for solving a problem
  • A computer program (or set of programs) is designed to systematically solve a problem.
  • A computer system has two major components, hardware and software.
  • The processing is performed by the hardware.
  • Software refers to a program that makes the computer to do something meaningful and classified as System Software and Application Software
  • System software consists of general programs written for a computer.
  • An Application Software consists of programs designed to solve a user problem.
  • Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values.
  • A digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers.
  • A hybrid computing system is a combination of desirable features of analog and digital computers.
  • Super computers process billions of instructions per second.
  • Mainframes are capable of processing data at very high speeds – hundreds of million instructions per second.
  • The mini computers were developed with the objective of bringing out low cost computers.
  • The invention of microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the micro computers.
  • The micro computers are further classified into workstation, personal computers, laptop computers and still smaller computers.
Classification of Computers based on Configuration (Prev Lesson)
(Next Lesson) NUMBER SYSTEMS
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