Book-keeping is that branch of knowledge which tells us how to keep a record of business transactions. It is often routine and clerical in nature. It is important to note that only those transactions related to business which can be expressed in terms of money are recorded. The activities of book-keeping include recording in the journal, posting to the ledger and balancing of accounts. 1.2.1 Definition r.N. Carter says, “Book-keeping is the science and art of correctly recording in the books of account all those business transactions that result in the transfer of money or money’s worth”. 1.2.2 Objectives The objectives of book-keeping are i. to have permanent record of all the business transactions. ii. to keep records of income and expenses in such a way that the net profit or net loss may be calculated. iii. to keep records of assets and liabilities in such a way that the financial position of the business may be ascertained. iv. to keep control on expenses with a view to minimise the same in order to maximise profit. v. to know the names of the customers and the amount due from them. vi. to know the names of suppliers and the amount due to them. vii. to have important information for legal and tax purposes. 1.2.3 Advantages From the above objectives of book-keeping, the following advantages can be noted
i. Permanent and Reliable Record: Book-keeping provides permanent
record for all business transactions, replacing the memory which fails to remember everything. ii. Arithmetical Accuracy of the Accounts: With the help of book
keeping trial balance can be easily prepared. This is used to check the
arithmetical accuracy of accounts. iii. Net Result of Business Operations: The result (Profit or Loss) of business can be correctly calculated. iv. Ascertainment of Financial Position: It is not enough to know the profit or loss; the proprietor should have a full picture of his financial position in business. Once the full picture (say for a year) is known, this helps him to plan for the next year’s business. v. Ascertainment of the Progress of Business: When a proprietor
prepares financial statements evey year, he will be in a position to compare the statements. This will enable him to ascertain the growth of his business. Thus book keeping enables a long range planning of business activities besides
satisfying the short term objective of calculation of annual profits or losses. vi. Calculation of Dues : For certain transactions payments may be made later. Therefore, the businessman has to know how much he has to pay
others. vii. Control over Assets: In the course of business, the proprietor acquires various assets like building, machines, furnitures, etc. He has to keep a check over them and find out their values year after year. viii. Control over Borrowings: Many businessmen borrow from banks and other sources. These loans are repayable. Just as he must have a control over assets, he should have control over liabilities. ix. Identifying Do’s and Dont’s : Book keeping enables the proprietor to make an intelligent and periodic analysis of various aspects of the business such as purchases, sales, expenditures and incomes. From such analysis, it will be possible to focus his attention on what should be done and what should not be done to enhance his profit earning capacity. x. Fixing the Selling Price : In fixing the selling price, the businessmen have to consider many aspects of accounting information such as cost of
production, cost of purchases and other expenses. Accounting information is
essential in determining selling prices. xi. Taxation: Businessmen pay sales tax, income tax, etc. The tax
authorities require them to submit their accounts. For this purpose, they have to maintain a record of all their business transactions.
xii. Management Decision-making: Planning, reviewing, revising,
controlling and decision-making functions of the management are well aided by
book-keeping records and reports. xiii. Legal Requirements: Claims against and for the firm in relation to outsiders can be confirmed and established by producing the records as evidence in the court.

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