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  1. We know that except machine language, computer can not understand other type of languages therefore other languages should be translated into the machine language. Those computer software or programs which convert the program written in
  2. The part of the main function where we declare the variable and function is called declaration part. The variable declared inside the main function is called local variable which can used only by main function.
  3. Before writing a program there are certain tools which makes the programming easy, these tool are called programming tools.
  4. Technically, a string constant is an array of characters. The internal representation of a string has a null character '\0' at the end, so the physical storage required is one more than the number of characters written between the quotes.
  5. Binary means “two” therefore that type of operator which takes two operands to compute the operation is called binary operators.
  6. As in the case of getchar( ) and putchar( ) where ‘char’ represents character in the same way here in gets ( ) and puts ( ), ‘s’ represents string. String is set of character.
  7. “do” means perform the work or execute the statements and “while” means until the condition is satisfied. That means in “do-while” statement, statements are executed first and then condition is checked.
  8. Arrays

    An array consists of a series of continuous memory location to store the values. These locations are termed as the element of array.
  9. Functions

    In C programming a large and complex problem can be divided into smaller sub-program which is called as module in C. These modules are called functions
  10. Pointer is an address variable that contains/holds the address of another variable. The address is the location of another variable in the memory.
  11. As in the case of string struper( ) and strlwr( ) is used to convert the whole string in uppercase or lowercase, in the same way in the character manipulation toupper( ) and tolower( ) are used to convert the character in uppercase and lowercase respectively.
  12. C provides the facility to handle such situations more easily and effectively by using what is known as dynamic data structures in conjunction with dynamic memory management techniques.
  13. A structure is a heterogeneous mixture of different data items of different data types that can be represented by a common name. This means it can store same or different types of data items in a single unit
    1. Structures within a structure mean nesting of structures. As in the case of looping, there is also the permission for the nesting of the structures.
    2. The symbol -> is called the arrow operator and is made up of a minus sign and a greater than sign. Since pointer acts as an array therefore we can treat the pointer as a one dimensional array
  14. These type of information is stored on the memory device in the form of a data file. Thus, data file allows us to store information permanently, and to access and alter that information at the time of necessity

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